Prepositions

The Preposition

A preposition is a word usually used before a noun or a pronoun which shows the relation of the noun or pronoun to something else in a sentence. The noun or pronoun used with a preposition is called its object.

for example:
Frank jumped into the lake to save the child.
She is fond of music.
He put it on the table.

In the above sentences into, of and on are prepositions. A preposition is usually placed before the noun or pronoun as we have already mentioned in the definition, but sometimes a preposition may have two or more objects.

for example:
He is fond of both music and dance.

In the examples given above, you may have observed that the prepositions used in these sentences are placed before its objects. But sometimes prepositions follow noun and pronoun.

for example:
What are you looking for?
Who are you talking to?
The Jury had much to ponder on.

Types of Preposition:

1. Simple Prepositions:

by, at, for, in, from, off, of, out, like, since, through, till, to, up, with, on etc.

2. Compound Prepositions:

about, above, across, along, amidst, among, amongst, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside, underneath, within, without etc.

3. Phrase Prepositions:

according to, agreeably to, along with, away from
by reason of, because of, by dint of, by means of, by virtue of, by way of
conformably to
for the sake of
in lieu of, in comparison to, in accordance with, in additional with, in addition to, on the behalf of, in case of, in comparison with, in consequence with, in consequence of, in course of, in favour of, in order to, in place of, in reference to, in regard to, in spite of, instead of, in the event of, in front of,
on account of, owing to
with an eye to, with reference to, with regard to, with a view to

Relations which can be expressed with the help of Preposition:

1. Place

for example:
Jake leaned against the wall.
We walked towards our school.
He ran across the playground.
Go and stand behind the wall.
The distance between Delhi and Chandigarh is 260 km.

2. Time

I had arrived before the bell rand.
They will meet in the afternoon.
Our meeting is going to be held on Tuesday.
The new start from 15th October.
They had to work until 5 pm.
I went to the gym throughout the year.

3. Manner

She won the match with ease.
My grandmother speaks in a sweet tone.

4. Means

He came here in a car.
I sent the letter by post.
She cutting the papers with scissors.
The team went for a tour on a bus.

5. Cause, purpose

He does it for his family.
My neighbor died of Tuberculosis.
She was shivering with high fever.
He suffers from carpal tunnel syndrome.

6. Possession

I saw a girl with long golden hair.
The temple of Lord Shiva.
One leg of the table was broken.

7. Contrast

In spite of the good circumstances, they were not able to accomplish the task.
He didn’t come to class despite the notice asking for his presence was issued a day earlier.
With all his faults people admire him.

Use of Different Prepositions:

At

We will go for a walk at 6:30 pm.
I met her at a business meeting.
My friend lives at 1196 Chapel street.
He published his book at the age of 20.
My boss is good at managing a team.

You can clearly see in the examples above we have used ‘at‘ to talk about a particular time, a place where something happens, an address along with house number, age, someone is good/bad at something respectively.

Some other examples are:
He drove the car at 80 km/h.
You can call us at 986723. (while giving a phone number)

About

This book is about human psychology.  (a subject of something)
People were asking about his profession.

Among and Between

He was among the survivors of the attack. (more than 2 nouns or pronouns without mentioning any number)
The father divided his wealth among his children.
The teacher chose me among the whole class. (class- a collective noun)

There was a match between France and England last night.  (when there are two nouns or pronouns)
Tell me the difference between North Indian cuisine and South Indian cuisine.
There was a trade agreement between India, Bhutan, and Nepal. (Mutual relationship/reciprocal relationship)

Across

We had to walk across the village to reach there. (from one side to other)
There is a school right across this park. (on the other side)
The warrior hit the other warrior across his face. (on/over a part of the body)
You will find such beauty across the whole Himalaya. (in every part)

Beside and Besides

My house is beside the river.  (by the side of/near/next to)
I have another novel besides this one. (in addition to)
The person sitting beside me in this picture is my colleague.
Our organization runs this charity besides volunteering for social work.

In and Into

Jessica forgot her notes in the car. (no movement)
I keep my money in my wallet.
She came into the class without her notes. (movement)
We all jumped into the lake.
She is really into fashion. (she is interested in fashion)
Mr. Warner comes office in a car/taxi. (a particular car/taxi)

By and with

This garden was ruined by stray animals. (Doer/agent)
He was inquired by the police.
This company is controlled by a group of people.
The swordmaker beat the sword with a hammer. (the instrument used to do something)
They shoot water balloons with a toy gun.
They traveled around the city by bus. (when we are not talking about a specific bus or there is no the/a/an)
He came here by boat.

In and within

The ship will arrive at the port in a month. (at the end of the month)
The ship will arrive at the port within a month. (before the month ends)
He lives in New York. (used with names of cities, towns, and villages)

On, Onto and Above

The baby is lying on the bed. (surface)
Keep this vas on the table.
She was dancing on the stage.
There was a bulb hanging over/above the table. (no contact with the surface mentioned)
There is a drone hovering over/above the playground.
Jake wore a coat over his white shirt. (partly or completely covering the surface)
There is a bridge over this river. (from one side to the other)
Over/above one billion people live in India. (more than an amount mentioned)
I think his father is over/above fifty years of age.

Since

We had been working together since 2012.  (with a point of time)
She has been listening to music since morning.
I have been living here since January.

Under, below, beneath, and underneath

I am sitting under a tree.
I have worn a shirt under this jacket. (layers of something)
Most of the people here have the annual income under 100000 rupees. (number- age/amount/weight)
The team is under pressure now.  (mental state)
Put this painting on the wall below our family photo. (on the same surface but one above the other)
Read the instructions below to operate this device. (something which is written further)
The temperature is below 10° c today.
They hid his notebook beneath the pile of books. (in a lower position or covered by something)
She considers such jobs beneath ger. (not good enough)
I found this book underneath the sofa. (casual way to say under or to put emphasis on the object)

Some nouns, verbs, adjectives, and participles are always followed by particular prepositions.

for example:
My mother is fond of cooking.
This forest is famous for wild cats.
The camel subsists on very less amount of water.
I wished for him to get better.
He is endowed with tremendous mental ability.
They were all enamored of Machu Picchu.
Our company services are more accessible to general people.
Alisha was averse to any changes.
We have to abandon this project due to some financial problem.
There is a cure for almost every disease.
They lived in destitute of fresh water.
There are few diseases which are not susceptible to medical treatment.
Children nowadays are addicted to video games.
Animals quickly inure to new weather conditions.
They were acquainted with the new developments in the area.

Some words which are related can take different prepositions. For example

There is an evident contrast between these two versions of the App.
This app has performed well in contrast to its earlier version.
They have no prejudice against people from a different race.
Your behavior is prejudicial for your care.
The character in the movie was descended from a royal family.
He is descendant of King Ashoka.
All of us have confidence in our abilities.
We are confident of winning.
The injury was hindering me from performing my best.
The unstable workforce is a hindrance to our progress.

You should not use the infinitive(the base form of a verb) with some words which take prepositions followed by a gerund(noun+ing).

We were prohibited from entering the ford.
The clerk was tired of writing letters.
Our company assisted them in promoting their product.
My friend excels in singing.
The whole family was sad on hearing the news.
Harold is crazy about watching movies.
We are excited about launching our own website.
She is confident of securing good marks.
Is he interested in writing stories?

Below are a few examples of Phrase Prepositions:

You will be paid according to your efficiency and accuracy.
I was selected along with the other twenty writers.
He felt nervous because of his poor preparation.
We were able to bring it here by means of this truck.
They should give cash prize in lieu of trophies.
We came home early on the account of his fever.
John bought this place with an eye to building a hotel here.

So this is all about preposition from my end.

You can read about the other parts of speech by clicking on the link below.

If you feel something is missing in this post you can comment and also discuss on our face group.

Thanks for reading:)

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